Vitamin B12 Forms
This is a fact sheet intended for health professionals. For a reader-friendly overview of Vitamin B12, see our consumer fact sheet on Vitamin B Introduction. Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement and a prescription medication. Apr 02, · Almost all multivitamins. Vitamin B12 is better absorbed by the body when it is taken along with other B vitamins, such as niacin, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and magnesium. A prescription form of vitamin B12 can be given by injection or as a nasal gel. Vitamin B12 is also available in a form that dissolves under the tongue (sublingual).
Get the latest public health information from CDC. Have a question? This is a reader-friendly overview of Vitamin B For more details, see our health professional fact sheet on Vitamin B Vitamin B12 is a nutrient that helps keep the body's nerve and blood cells healthy and helps make DNA, what is a hank of beads genetic material in all cells.
Vitamin B12 also helps prevent a type of anemia called megaloblastic anemia that makes people tired and weak. Two steps are required for the body to absorb vitamin B12 from food. First, hydrochloric acid in the stomach separates vitamin B12 from the protein to which vitamin B12 is attached in food. After this, vitamin B12 combines with a protein made by the stomach called intrinsic factor and is absorbed by the body.
Some people have pernicious anemia, a condition in which they cannot make intrinsic factor. As a result, they have trouble absorbing vitamin B12 from all foods and dietary supplements. The amount of vitamin B12 you need each day depends on your age. Average daily recommended amounts for different ages are listed below in micrograms mcg :.
Vitamin B12 is found naturally in a wide variety of animal foods and is added to some fortified foods. Plant foods have no vitamin B12 unless they are fortified. You can get recommended amounts of vitamin B12 by eating a variety of foods including the following:. Vitamin B12 what is cyanocobalamin vitamin b12 used for found in almost all multivitamins. Dietary supplements that contain only vitamin B12, or vitamin B12 with nutrients such as folic acid and other B vitaminsare also available.
Check the Supplement Facts label to determine the amount of vitamin B12 provided. Vitamin B12 is also available in sublingual forms which are dissolved under the tongue. There is no evidence that sublingual forms are better absorbed than pills that are swallowed.
A prescription form of vitamin B12 can be administered as a shot. This is usually used to treat vitamin B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 is also available as a prescription medication in a nasal gel form that is sprayed into the nose. Most people in the United States get enough vitamin B12 from the foods they eat. But some people have trouble absorbing vitamin B12 from food.
As a result, vitamin B12 deficiency affects between 1. Your doctor can test your vitamin B12 level to see if you have a deficiency.
Vitamin B12 deficiency causes tiredness, weakness, constipation, loss of appetite, weight loss, and megaloblastic anemia. Nerve problems, such as numbness and tingling in the hands and feet, can also occur. Other symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include problems with balance, depression, confusion, dementia, poor memory, and soreness of the mouth or tongue. Vitamin B12 deficiency can damage the nervous system even in people who don't have anemia, so it is important to treat a deficiency as soon as possible.
In infants, signs of a vitamin B12 deficiency include failure to thriveproblems with movement, delays in reaching the typical developmental milestones, and megaloblastic anemia.
Large amounts of folic acid can hide a vitamin B12 deficiency by correcting megaloblastic anemia, a hallmark of vitamin B12 deficiency.
But folic acid does not correct the progressive damage to the nervous system that vitamin B12 deficiency also causes. For this reason, healthy adults should not get more than 1, mcg of folic acid a day. Scientists are studying vitamin B12 to understand how it affects health. Here are several examples of what this research has shown:. Vitamin B12 supplements along with folic acid and vitamin B6 do not reduce the risk of getting cardiovascular disease.
Scientists had thought that these vitamins might be helpful because they reduce blood levels of homocysteinea compound linked to an increased risk of having how to put a youtube link on powerpoint heart attack or stroke. As they get older, some people develop dementia. These people often have high levels of homocysteine in the blood.
Vitamin B12 with folic acid and vitamin B6 can lower homocysteine levels, but scientists don't know yet whether these vitamins actually help prevent or treat dementia. Advertisements often promote vitamin B12 supplements as a way to increase energy or endurance. Except in people with a vitamin B12 deficiency, no evidence shows that vitamin B12 supplements increase energy or improve athletic performance.
Vitamin B12 can interact or interfere with medicines that you how to play portal 2 coop, and in some cases, medicines can lower vitamin B12 levels in the body. Here are several examples of medicines that can what is the song war pigs about with the body's absorption or use of vitamin B Tell your doctor, pharmacist, and other healthcare providers about any dietary supplements and medicines you take.
They can tell you if those dietary supplements might interact or interfere with your prescription or over-the-counter medicines or if the medicines might interfere with how your body absorbs, uses, or breaks down nutrients. Foods contain vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and other components that benefit health.
In some cases, fortified foods and dietary supplements are useful when it is not possible to the hague what to see needs for one or more nutrients e. For more information about building a healthy dietary pattern, see the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the U. This fact sheet by the Office of Dietary Supplements ODS provides information that should not take the place of medical advice. We encourage you to talk to your healthcare providers doctor, registered dietitian, pharmacist, etc.
Any mention in this publication of a specific product or service, or recommendation from an organization or professional society, does not represent an endorsement by ODS of that product, service, or expert advice.
Updated: January 15, History of changes to this fact sheet. Find ODS on:. Strengthening Knowledge and Understanding of Dietary Supplements. Health Information Health Information. For Researchers For Researchers. Vitamin B12 Fact Sheet for Consumers.
What is vitamin B12 and what does it do? How much vitamin B12 do I need? What foods provide vitamin B12? What kinds of vitamin B12 dietary supplements are available? Am I getting enough vitamin B12? What happens if I don't get enough vitamin B12? What are some effects of vitamin B12 on health? Can vitamin B12 be harmful? Does vitamin B12 interact with medications or other dietary supplements?
Vitamin B12 and healthful eating Where can I find out more about vitamin B12? Disclaimer This fact sheet by the Office of Dietary Supplements ODS provides information that should not take the place of medical advice. Term Selected: Select the term below that you'd like to link this term to. Infants 7—12 months.
Foods high in vitamin B12 include meats, seafood, egg yolk, and fermented cheeses; few vitamins are lost with ordinary cooking. Patients self-medicating with vitamin supplements should be cautioned not to exceed RDA. Effectiveness of megadoses for treatment of various medical conditions is unproved and may cause side effects. Sep 24, · Luckily, vitamin B12 can be easily supplemented with B12 shots, and there are multiple locations on your body that can be used as a B12 injection site. If you are experiencing a vitamin B12 deficiency, with symptoms such as tiredness, weight loss, and constipation, B12 injections are an effective and rapid treatment for your body to quickly and. The most common form of vitamin B (cobalamin) in supplements is cyanocobalamin and although this form includes a cyanide molecule, it is very safe. Why? Even at a very high dose, it would provide about a thousand times less cyanide than is toxic, and the cyanide is excreted in the urine.
Cyanocobalamin, also called cobalamin, is a synthetic form of Vitamin B Cyanocobalamin is used to treat Vitamin B 12 deficiency in people also in animals with pernicious anemia and other conditions. As cyanocobalamin contains cyanide, it can not be used directly in the body and must be broken down and converted into methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin.
Cyanocobalamin is commonly used and found in vitamins and dietary supplements manufacturing for its lower cost among other 4 types of vitamin b It is not naturally occurring and can only be manufactured through chemical synthesis. There are four types of Vitamin b Cyanocobalamin, Hydroxocobalamin, Adenosylcobalamin and Mecobalamin. Cyanocobalamin is the only type that contains metallic elements. The human body can only use Methylcobalamin and Adenosylcobalamin directly, which are two active coenzyme forms of vitamin B12 in the body.
Another two cobalamins must be converted into these two forms first and then can be utilized. It is dark red crystals or crystalline powder. It functions after converted into methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin in the body. Its stability is the best among the four types, as well as its absorption rate in the body is the highest.
Although it cannot be directly utilized by the human body, it has the same effect and function with adenosylcobalamin. It is dark red crystals or crystalline powder with better solubility in water.
Sometimes it is called long-acting cobalamin due to its slow metabolism in the urine. Compared with cyanocobalamin and methylcobalamin, hydroxocobalamin can reach a higher concentration in the eye, which is beneficial to relieve visual fatigue and be nutritional to the optic nerve, so resulting in a certain effect on toxic amblyopia from tobacco.
In addition, hydroxocobalamin can rapidly combine with free cyanide in aqueous solution to form non-toxic cyanocobalamin, and it has been approved by many countries for the treatment of known or suspected cyanide poisoning. It is a bright red needle crystal or crystalline powder. Its absorption rate in the human body is second to cyanocobalamin. In comparison with the other three types, it has a better transmission of nerve tissue, which can promote the metabolism of nucleic acid-protein-lipid and can repair damaged nerve tissue.
Clinically, it has obvious curative effect on peripheral nerve diseases such as neurological disorders, multiple neuritis caused by diabetes, especially numbness, pain, and paralysis. In the treatment of peripheral neuropathy, the clinical safety and efficacy of mecobalamin are superior to adenosylcobalamin and cyanocobalamin.
It is a yellow-orange hexagonal crystal that becomes deep red when exposed to air. Adenosylcobalamin is used internationally as a biochemical reagent and test reagent.
At present, only the Chinese Pharmacopoeia takes it as a drug. Adenosylcobalamin has been used in the Chinese market for many years and its role is basically the same as that of the other three types. It is used not only for the treatment of megaloblastic anemia, but also for malnutrition anemia, anemia during pregnancy, and leukopenia caused by radiation and chemotherapy drugs.
The stability is not good and decomposed when exposed to light so the storage condition should be protected from light.
Also, it is easy to absorb moisture in the air. Slightly soluble in water or ethanol. Soluble in alcohol, insoluble in acetone chloroform and ether. It is widely used as a supplement in cereal products and certain beverages. Fortification with Vitamin B 12 is especially important for products aimed at people with a low dietary intake, such as vegans. It is an indispensable micronutrient for the growth of the animals. Feed grade cyanocobalamin can promote the growth and development of poultry, especially young poultry.
The lack of Vitamin B 12 in non-ruminant animals such as pigs and chickens will result in the stagnation of growth and development, and a few pigs may develop mild normal red cell anemia.
In addition, the hatching rate of chickens and the reproductive rate of pigs can also be reduced with the deficiency of vitamin B The clinical symptoms of deficiency include loss of appetite, stagnation, anemia, and severe neurological symptoms.
It is generally considered safe but possible side effects of cyanocobalamin injection include allergic reactions such as hives, difficult breathing; redness of the face; swelling of the arms, hands, feet, ankles or lower legs; extreme thirst; and diarrhea. Less-serious side effects may include headache, dizziness, leg pain, itching, or rash.
Our body can deal with small amounts of cyanide, usually by using sodium thiosulfate, converting the cyanide ions to thiocyanate, which will be excreted from body. Cyanocobalamin is safe and used as food additives and can be found in many health supplements.
The safety of cyanocobalamin has raised health concerns due to cyanide. Cyanide is widely found in nature. Cassava, sorghum, corn, beans, millet, cabbage, flaxseed, bamboo, and other plants contain cyanide. Cyanide in edible plants is mostly in the form of cyanide glycosides. There are at least more than 2, species of plants that contain this component, of which about 1, are core species.
People usually eat almonds, bayberry, grape seeds, apple seeds, peaches, plums, and cherries, and their cores contain cyanide. In addition, small amounts of hydrogen cyanide are also detected in milk, distilled spirits, and fruit and wine products sold on the market; trace amounts of cyanide are also detected in some grains and water. Cyano group at the cobalt is replaced with a methyl group that makes the difference between methylcobalamin and cyanocobalamin.
Cyanocobalamin and methylcobalamin are the same compounds with only one molecule differentiating the two. Cyanocobalamin has a cyanide donor, meaning that a molecule of cyanide is attached to the cobalamin compound. Instead of cyanide, methylcobalamin has a methyl donor attached to the cobalamin compound. Though the difference is small, it can have an impact on your health. Your Name. Your Email. Company Name.
Your Message. Food and feed grade Vitamin B12 cyanocobalamin. What Are Possible Side effects? Two FAQs Specification. When used as the feed additive for livestock and poultry nutrition, its some function as follows:.
Leave a Comment Cancel reply. Related Posts. Xanthan gum E Thickener, 80mesh and mesh.
Tags: How to make simple machines at home, how to record from tape to cd
<- What can you watch on apple tv for free - How to make rice flakes->