Counter-Reformation, also called Catholic Reformation or Catholic Revival, in the history of Christianity, the Roman Catholic efforts directed in the 16th and early 17th centuries both against the Protestant Reformation and toward internal renewal. Jan 20, · Answer: The Counter-Reformation was Roman Catholicism’s response to the Protestant Reformation. In the late 15th and early 16th centuries, Christians began to openly criticize the Roman Catholic Church for teaching things contrary to the Bible.
Question: "What was the Counter-Reformation? In the late 15th and early 16th centuries, Christians began to openly criticize the Roman Catholic Church for teaching things contrary to the Bible. The Reformers objected to the veneration worship of Mary, the selling of indulgences, the insistence that rituals and sacraments were necessary for salvation, and so forth.
As the Reformation took hold culturally and theologically, Catholicism responded with its own efforts. Some of these were intended to change the Catholic Church itself, but most were designed to resist the claims of how to make soft dhokla Reformers.
Collectively, these Catholic efforts became known as the Counter-Reformation. Much of the Counter-Reformation was driven by politics. In Spain, for example, kings and queens were more than happy to apply Catholic resources toward stamping out dissenters—in their case, mostly Protestants. Deportation, excommunication, and execution were common tools used what are the different flavors of ciroc vodka the Counter-Reformation.
The Jesuits are a religious order formed specifically to counter Protestantism. Their tactics during the Counter-Reformation involved intellectual and theological arguments, although they also used less spiritual methods of accomplishing their goals. The Inquisition was a product of Jesuit influence.
The Jesuits also produced an Index of Prohibited Books: texts Catholics were officially forbidden to read. The Council of Trent was, in theory, an attempt to change those aspects of Catholicism that Protestants were justified in complaining about. Unfortunately, the council itself came far too late. By the time the council convened, the Reformation had been in full swing for nearly a quarter-century.
By that time, the church was well and truly split. The Council of Trent did positively address some complaints of the Reformers. The sale of indulgences was stopped, the roles of priests were more carefully defined, and what is the counter reformation use of sacred artifacts— relics —was greatly reduced. Certain aspects of music and liturgy and other practical issues were discussed as well. However, on the most critical issues, the Council of Trent, like the rest of the Counter-Reformation, was mostly a doubling-down on entrenched Catholic theology.
This council, and the other Counter-Reformers, doggedly defended transubstantiation, upheld the necessity of sacraments for salvation, rejected sola fideand claimed outright that Catholic tradition was as equally authoritative as the Bible. In addition, the council members determined that the Latin Vulgate was the one and only acceptable Bible for church use.
And they insisted that, since politics was instituted by God, all political leaders were subject to papal authority.
Even though some aspects of the Counter-Reformation were aimed at repairing broken parts of Catholicism, the primary effect was to stabilize and reinforce Catholic errors. It would be fair to say that the Counter-Reformation, especially the founding of the Jesuits and the results of the Council of Trent, slammed the door shut on any possible reconciliation with Protestantism or the Reformers.
What was the Counter-Reformation?
Jun 25, · The Counter-Reformation was a period of spiritual, moral, and intellectual revival in the Catholic Church in the 16th and 17th centuries, usually dated from (the opening of the Council of Trent) to (the end of the Thirty Years' War). the movement for reform within the Roman Catholic Church that followed the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century. Counter-Reformation means the steps the Catholic Church took to oppose the growth of Protestantism in the s. CATHOLIC REFORMATION Toward the end of the Middle Ages, many people became unhappy with the behavior of high-ranking officials in the Catholic Church.
Counter-Reformation , also called Catholic Reformation or Catholic Revival , in the history of Christianity , the Roman Catholic efforts directed in the 16th and early 17th centuries both against the Protestant Reformation and toward internal renewal. The Counter-Reformation largely grew as a response to the Protestant Reformation and was a movement of reform within the Roman Catholic Church.
The Counter-Reformation served to solidify doctrine that many Protestants were opposed to, such as the authority of the pope and the veneration of saints , and eliminated many of the abuses and problems that had initially inspired the Reformation, such as the sale of indulgences for the remission of sin. The Jesuits helped carry out two major objectives of the Counter-Reformation: Catholic education and missionary work.
The Jesuits established numerous schools and universities throughout Europe, helping to maintain the relevance of the Catholic church in increasingly secular and Protestant societies. With the colonization of the New World, Jesuits established missions throughout Latin America to win converts among the indigenous peoples.
Jesuits were also among the first missionaries to East Asia of modern times, contributing to the spread of Catholicism around the globe. Yes and no. As evidenced by the more than half a billion Protestants around the world, the Counter-Reformation did not halt the spread of Protestantism in Europe and beyond. However, the Counter-Reformation did much to reform many of the problems and extravagances that Martin Luther originally objected to in his Ninety-five Theses.
Various aspects of doctrine, ecclesiastical structures, new religious orders, and Catholic spirituality were clarified or refined, and Catholic piety was revived in many places. Additionally, Catholicism achieved a global reach through the many missionary endeavours that were initiated during the Counter-Reformation.
These reforms and growth did much to maintain Catholicism as the dominant Christian tradition. Early calls for reform grew out of criticism of the worldly attitudes and policies of the Renaissance popes and many of the clergy.
New religious orders and other groups were founded to effect a religious renewal—e. Later in the century, St. John of the Cross and St. Francis of Sales had a similar influence on the devotional life of the laity. There was little significant papal reaction to the Protestants or to demands for reform from within the Roman Catholic Church before mid-century.
It was he who in convened the Council of Trent. The council, which met intermittently until , responded emphatically to the issues at hand. Disciplinary reforms attacked the corruption of the clergy. There was an attempt to regulate the training of candidates for the priesthood; measures were taken against luxurious living on the part of the clergy, the appointment of relatives to church office, and the absence of bishops from their dioceses. Prescriptions were given about pastoral care and the administration of the sacraments.
The Roman Inquisition , an agency established in to combat heresy , was more successful in controlling doctrine and practice than similar bodies in those countries where Protestant princes had more power than the Roman Catholic Church.
Political and military involvement directed against Protestant growth is most clearly reflected in the policies of Emperor Charles V and in those of his son Philip II , who was associated with the Spanish Inquisition.
Various theologians—especially the Jesuit St. Robert Bellarmine —attacked the doctrinal positions of the Protestant reformers, but there was no one to rival the theological and moral engagement evident in the writings of Luther or the eloquence and passion characteristic of the works of John Calvin. Roman Catholics tended to emphasize the beliefs and devotional subjects that were under direct attack by the Protestants—e.
Education was foremost in the minds of many of the leaders of the Counter-Reformation. Capable priests were needed for the education of the faithful, and, thus, seminaries multiplied to prepare the clergy for a more austere life in the service of the church.
The Society of Jesus , founded in by St. Ignatius of Loyola , was not specifically a teaching order but was nevertheless very important in this field. The first Jesuit college was opened in Messina , Sicily, in By the Jesuits had colleges, and by —just 18 years before the suppression of the order—the number had risen to The society was not reestablished until Another major emphasis of the Counter-Reformation was an ongoing missionary endeavour in parts of the world that had been colonized by predominantly Roman Catholic countries, such as Spain and Portugal.
The work of such men as St. Francis Xavier and others in Asia and of missionaries in the New World was rewarded with millions of baptisms , if not true conversions.
There were also attempts to reconvert areas of the world that had once been Roman Catholic—e. The Wars of Religion between and regained France for the Roman Catholic cause, though the Edict of Nantes granted a limited toleration to the Protestants; it was revoked in Perhaps the most complete victory for the Counter-Reformation was the restoration of Roman Catholic domination in Poland and in Hussite Bohemia.
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But in Rudolf transferred his court from Vienna to Prague, and the Bohemian capital became once more an imperial residence…. While the reformed religion was being established in Wales, Welsh society and the Welsh language were at their lowest ebb.
The Roman Catholic writers of the Counter-Reformation regarded the new religion as an English import and struggled to preserve old Roman Catholic culture. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Day , every day in your inbox! Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice.
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