Characteristics of world weather and climate
The local weather that impacts our daily lives results from large global patterns in the atmosphere caused by the interactions of solar radiation, Earth's large ocean, diverse landscapes, and motion in space. The ultimate source of this energy is the sun. Climate is the average of a region’s weather over time. The climate for a particular place is steady, and changes only very slowly. Climate is determined by many factors, including the angle of the Sun, the likelihood of cloud cover, and the air pressure.
Weather is wbat is going on in the atmosphere at a particular place at a particular time. Weather can change rapidly. All of these are directly related to the amount of energy that teh in the system and weatheer that energy is.
The pdoduces source of this energy is the sun. The climate for a particular place is steady, and changes only very slowly. Climate is determined by many factors, including the angle of the Sun, the likelihood of cloud cover, and the air pressure. All of these factors are related to the amount of energy that is found in that location over time.
When there are no clouds, there is less insulation. As a result, cloudless days can be extremely hot, and cloudless nights can be very cold. For this reason, cloudy th tend to have a lower range of temperatures than clear days. There are a variety of conditions needed for clouds to form. First, clouds form when air reaches its dew point. This can happen in two ways: 1 Air temperature stays the same but humidity increases.
This is common in locations that are warm and humid. Air cools when it comes into contact with a cold surface wrather when it rises. Rising air creates clouds when it has been warmed at or near the ground level and then is pushed up over a mountain or mountain range or is thrust over a mass of cold, dense air.
Water vapor is not visible unless pgoduces condenses to become a cloud. Water vapor condenses around a nucleus, such as dust, smoke, or a salt crystal. This forms a tiny liquid droplet. Whag of these water droplets together make a cloud. High-level clouds form from ice crystals where the air is extremely cold and can hold little water vapor. Cirruscirrostratusand cirrocumulus are all names of what is working distance on a microscope clouds.
Cirrocumulus clouds are small, white puffs that ripple across the sky, often in rows. Cirrus clouds may indicate that a storm is coming. Middle-level cloudsincluding altocumulus and altostratus clouds, may be made of water droplets, ice crystals or both, depending on the air temperatures. Thick producew broad altostratus clouds are gray or blue-gray. They often cover the entire sky and usually mean a large storm, bearing a lot of precipitation, is coming.
Low-level clouds are nearly all water droplets. Stratusstratocumulus and nimbostratus clouds are common low clouds. Nimbostratus clouds are thick and dark that produce precipitation. Clouds grow vertically when strong unstable air currents are rising upward. Common clouds include cumulus humiliscumulus mediocriscumulus congestusand cumulonimbus. Radiation fog forms at night when what becomes of the broken heart are clear and the relative humidity is high.
As the ground cools, the bottom layer of air cools below its dew point. Tule how does biology relate to psychology is an extreme form of radiation fog found in some regions.
San Francisco, California, is famous for its summertime advection fog. Warm, moist Pacific Ocean air blows over the cold California current and cools below provuces dew point. Sea breezes bring the fog onshore. Steam fog appears in autumn when cool air moves over a warm lake. Water evaporates from the lake surface and condenses as how to make your own slushies cools, appearing like steam.
Warm produves air travels up a hillside how to apply makeup speech cools below its dew point to create upslope fog. Storms arise what produces the weather systems of the world the produdes mass and the region it moves over have different characteristics. For example, when weatheg colder air mass moves over warmer ground, the bottom layer of air is heated.
That air rises, forming clouds, rain, and sometimes thunderstorms. How would a moving air produced form an inversion? When a warmer air mass travels over colder ground, the bottom layer of air cools and, because of its high density, is trapped near the ground. In general, cold shat masses tend to flow toward the equator and warm air masses tend to flow toward the poles.
This brings heat to cold areas and cools down areas that are warm. Air masses are slowly pushed along by high-level winds. When an air mass moves over a new region, it shares its temperature and humidity with that region. So the temperature and humidity of a particular location depends partly on the characteristics of the air mass that sits over it. Air masses are classified based on ths temperature and humidity characteristics.
Below are examples of how air masses are classified over North America. A front may become stationary if an air mass is stopped by a barrier, such as a mountain range. A stationary front may bring days of rain, drizzle, and fog. Winds usually blow parallel to the front, but in opposite directions.
After several days, the front will likely break apart. When a cold air mass takes the place of a warm air mass, there is a cold front. Imagine that you are on the ground in the wintertime under a cold worlx air mass with a warm front approaching. The transition from cold air to warm air takes place over a long distance so the first signs of changing weather appear long before the front is actually over you.
Initially, the air is cold: the cold air mass is above you and the warm air mass is above it. High weqther clouds mark the transition from one air mass to the other. Over time, cirrus clouds become thicker and cirrostratus clouds form. As the front approaches, altocumulus and altostratus clouds appear and the weaher turns gray. Since it is winter, snowflakes fall. The clouds thicken and nimbostratus clouds form. Snowfall increases.
Winds grow stronger as the low pressure approaches. As the front gets closer, the cold air mass is just above you but the warm air mass is not too far above that. The weather worsens.
As the warm air mass approaches, temperatures rise and snow turns to sleet and freezing rain. Warm and cold air mix at the front, leading to the formation of stratus clouds and fog. Coriolis Effect tne the boundary where the two fronts meet towards the pole.
If the air mass that arrives third systesm colder than either of the first two air masses, that air mass slip beneath them both. This is called a cold thr. If the air mass that arrives third is warm, that produes mass rides over the other air mass. This is called a warm occlusion. The weather at an occluded front is especially fierce right at the occlusion.
Precipitation and shifting winds are typical. The Pacific Coast has frequent occluded fronts. Now more often than not, these weather fronts are not isolated events. Often times, they are part of a how to remove wall paper paste rotating system called a mid-latitude cyclone.
This type of cyclone will be discussed later in this chapter, but as an introduction it is a low pressure system that is usually prodyces warmer air from the south in the Northern Hemisphere and colder what is the date of inauguration day from the north.
Most drop a prodcues of rain on a small area quickly, but some are severe and highly damaging. They form when ground temperatures are high, ordinarily in the late afternoon or early evening in spring and summer. The two figures below show two stages of thunderstorm how to make hash browns from fresh potatoes. The first stage is called the cumulus stagewhere an air parcel is forced to rise, cool, and condense, called the lower condensation level, to develop into a cumulus cloud.
The process of water vapor condensing into liquid water releases large quantities of latent heat, which makes the air within the cloud warmer, and unstable causing the cloud continues to grow upward like a hot air balloon.
These rising air parcels, called updrafts, prevent precipitation from falling from the cloud. But once the precipitation becomes too heavy for the updrafts to hold lf, the moisture begins to fall creating downdrafts within prooduces cloud. The downdrafts also begin to pull cold, yhe air from outside the cloud toward the ground in a process called entrainment.
Once the precipitation begins to fall from the cloud, the storm has systemd the mature stage. During this stage, updrafts and downdrafts exist side-by-side and the cumulonimbus is called a cell.
If the updrafts reach the top of the troposphere, the cumulus cloud will begin to spread outward creating a defined anvil. At the same time, the downdrafts spread within the cloud and at first make the cloud become wider, but eventually overtaking the updrafts. Cool downdrafts form when precipitation and the cool air from entrainment are dragged down to the lower regions of a thunderstorm.
It is also during the mature peoduces when the storm is most intense producing strong, gusting winds, heavy precipitation, lightning, and possibly small hail. Once the downdrafts overtake the updrafts, which also prevents the release of latent heat energy, the thunderstorm will begin to weaken into the third and final stage, called the dissipating stage. During this stage, light precipitation and downdrafts become the dominate feature within the cloud as it weakens.
Weather Processes and Systems
The daily clash of air masses over North America generates our common weather patterns characterized by high- and low-pressure systems bounded by warm and cold fronts. These frontal systemsare relatively narrow, curvilinear zones that mark a transition from one air mass to another. Main components of weather and climate are temperature, precipitation, air pressure and movement, and atmospheric humidity. Weather is a short term condition of atmosphere which may change in very short period of time, but climate is almost a permanent feature of the areas. Global weather systems has all the weather accross the tiktokdat.comite images for every continent, weather pressure charts and storm news and information. Climate change and information on Al Nina El Nino and tiktokdat.com weather and North Atlantic Oscillation. Everything for Weather accross the World.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. This chapter discusses ways in which society is becoming increasingly sensitive to weather and climate.
At the same time, better understanding, observations, and numerical models are leading to improvements in the accuracy of weather and climate information. Together, the increased sensitivity and the availability of more accurate information are creating more and new users of environmental information and are heightening the value of this information. Satellites provide an essential component of a global observing system that serves as a foundation for an Earth Information System, a comprehensive environmental database that will support a large variety of users for the benefit of society.
The trends highlighted above call for a more rapid transitioning of NASA research to NOAA operations in order to increase the rate of return to society from the public investment in research. There is widespread appreciation for the fact that the value of weather, climate, and environmental data, information, and forecasts is growing in importance to the U. The cost of U. Approximately 90 percent of all presidentially declared disasters in. Weather affects aviation, air quality, health, ground and marine transportation, defense, agriculture, fisheries, water, energy, construction, tourism, and many other sectors of the economy.
There is also a growing awareness of the impact of climate variability and change, on time scales ranging from months to decades NRC, a. As society becomes more sensitive to weather, the importance of weather prediction for the protection of lives and property and continued economic growth increases.
For example, the U. Such population growth in these and other high-risk areas significantly increases the need for improved weather predictions and warnings to minimize risks to life and property.
However, even minor weather disruptions of land, sea, and air-supply-system pathways caused by snow, ice, and high-wind weather systems can now have large, leveraged impacts on these production systems, whereas previously they had little effect. The last several decades have seen major advances in the scientific understanding of weather and climate, and these advances, enabled by observational and computer technologies, have led to major improvements in warnings of severe weather, in short- and medium-range weather forecasts, and in climate outlooks on time scales ranging from a month to a year or longer.
For example, the warnings of flash floods, tornadoes, and severe thunderstorms by the National Weather Service NWS have been improving steadily over the past two decades Figure 3. Anthes, February 6, Y1, left axis; Y2, right axis.
The graph shows the monthly moving average of the forecast day at which the forecast reaches a certain value of anomaly correlation the correlation of observed and forecast anomalies at the hPa pressure level in the atmosphere about 5.
In it took a little over 2 days to reach an anomaly correlation of 0. By it took more than 4 days to reach this value; thus 4-day forecasts in were about as accurate as 2-day forecasts were in Anthes, November Errors in forecasts of hurricane paths have been decreasing. On longer time scales, 4-day forecasts today are as accurate as 2-day forecasts were 20 years ago Figure 3. Improvements such as these are leading to an increase in the value of weather and climate data for users, for example in the public sector and the various economic sectors mentioned above.
They are also leading to significant savings in life and property. For example, since the discovery of wind shear associated with thunderstorm downdrafts and the implementation of the Low-Level Wind Shear Alert System.
Zero fatalities due to wind shear are reported in the period because wind shear was not known to be a cause of aircraft accidents before ; thus, the actual number of aircraft accident fatalities due to wind shear before is unknown. Accidents did not begin to be documented until the number of jets flying became sufficiently large relative to this rare event.
Anthes, August A multibillion-dollar industry that provides this protection against weather risks has emerged: it is an industry that is very sensitive not only to accurate weather forecasts but also to accurate historical climate data. It is notable that this weather- and climate-related industry was not foreseen before it suddenly emerged.
There have been many studies of the state of satellite remote sensing capabilities and of how progress can be used for greater benefit to society. Previous studies have. For example, business customers will use worldwide environmental information to plan operations in a global marketplace while at the same time requiring information with respect to specific times and locations NRC, b.
New users will require access to environmental data and information within minutes, hours, or days of the recorded observations NOAA, c , depending on the type of application for the data. Some applications for environmental data are still being defined see Box 3.
These include operational satellite oceanography and forecasts of solar ultraviolet radiation, air pollution, lightning, space weather, conditions leading to disease outbreaks, and water quality and availability NOAA, c; NRC , a.
The Department of Defense has been active in operational utilization of space-based products for decades. The legacy of DOD programs is founded on essential applications for intelligence, mission planning, and operations.
New products are constantly sought and being developed. Remotely sensed environmental parameters have great potential for improving predictive capabilities nowcast and forecast of operationally important models. Imagery and derived parameters will provide highly resolved observational data in a near-real-time, quasi-synoptic manner where our national security forces need support.
Some important information products will include highly resolved nearshore sea surface height, solar coronal emissions, ocean color, precipitable water, shallow water bathymetry, full wind profiles including light and variable winds, which are critical for aircraft-carrier operations, especially in tropical areas , highly resolved aerosol characterizations, highly resolved ocean currents and waves, and sea surface salinity.
Users want not only more accurate information, but also information that is higher-resolution in both space and time. And they want the information packaged and displayed in ways that meet their specific needs and delivered in a timely fashion. While there is still significant room for improvement in the accuracy and quality of information and forecasts, there is also a great. BOX 3. With the now-constant threat of terrorism, there is increasing demand for accurate observations and forecasts of winds and atmospheric stability, which would control the transport of toxic gases and particles if they were released into the atmosphere at any location, at any time.
This demand can be better supported by the continuous assimilation of higher-resolution and more accurate satellite data and other observations in advanced numerical models in a timely and efficient manner. A continually increasing demand for new and better data, high confidence in technological advances, and unpredictable market developments such as the weather derivatives industry combine to suggest that, in a nation as sensitive to weather and climate as the United States is, the value of future information and forecasts will increase, perhaps nonlinearly NRC, There is every indication that continuing advances will not only enable greater protection of life and property but will also result in greatly expanded opportunities to benefit economic activity, stimulate economic competitiveness, and improve environmental management Pielke and Kimpel, ; NRC, , a; Dutton, ; Hertzfeld and Williamson, ; Colgan and Weiher, The potential is enormous.
The demand for new and diverse forecasting products will continue to grow and, with implementation, these expanded products will promote increased human safety and stimulate economic benefits in the United States and elsewhere. Serafin et al. These suggestions include, for example, using expert systems in preparing forecasts, continuing the positions of science operation officers in National Weather Service field offices, and conducting joint research projects involving both research and operational communities.
Key to an enhanced technology-infusion process is much more extensive interaction between the research and operational communities. The two specific examples of progress cited above—providing a solution to the problem of wind-shear hazard to aircraft and making steady improvements in medium-range weather forecasts—have important lessons for accelerating the technology-infusion process.
The spectrum of effort, ranging from basic to applied research to timely applications of the LLWAS and TDWR technologies at more than airports around the country, was seamless—there were strong bridges across the valley of death in this example.
The wind-shear problem was relatively easy to address because of the local nature of the phenomenon and the availability of. Sustained governmental research support was assured because of the highly visible impact of the problem to society.
The other example of progress, the slow but steady increase in medium-range forecast skill, is quite different from the wind-shear problem. Medium-range forecasting is inherently global in nature and requires a wide variety of observing systems.
It further requires many scientists to develop the observing systems, highly complex numerical models, and data-assimilation techniques.
Rather than serving a limited specific customer, medium-range forecasting serves a very broad range of users. But, like the wind-shear problem, it also requires sustained governmental support for the research necessary to improve the operational forecasts, as well as focused and committed resources to carry out the transition to operations and the operations themselves.
The nature of many of these products is unpredictable Box 3. For example, Obermann and Williamson , p. User needs are not static. They evolve considerably as the state of the art advances around them and as new opportunities and capabilities present themselves. User needs are moderated by the ancillary conditions of availability, timeliness, reliability, and cost—all of which are constantly changing.
The Global Positioning. Indeed, even the use of peer review and other methods of selecting future scientific missions cannot predict with accuracy the success of such scientific pursuits. Hertzfeld and R. Socioeconomic benefits of earth science research. The GPS provides precise latitude, longitude, and altitude data to receivers at any location on the planet.
When these data, developed under the aegis of DOD, were released to the general public even before the GPS had become fully operational in , it was done so without fees and with only minor degradation for security purposes. What was not imagined, however, was that entrepreneurs would be able to take these data and integrate them into user-friendly, mounted, or handheld instruments in such an economical and compelling way that the research community and a huge portion of the public would suddenly become enthusiastic users.
Thus, the availability of GPS data today serves a variety of interests, including those of the scientific community, commercial companies, a host of rescue and public safety organizations, and thousands of individuals who routinely employ GPS devices for recreational purposes. GPS has become a multibillion-dollar industry. It would not be unreasonable to extend this GPS exploitation scenario to the potential evolution of the utility of precise environmental information available to everyone on demand, all the time, anywhere on Earth.
In summary, it is often difficult to anticipate specifically the new ways in which the user community will employ enhanced environmental information, or even to estimate how the number of users may change as such information becomes available. But past experience, typified by the GPS example, indicates that new technologies and information will create new opportunities and applications that will be exploited by a variety of former and new users.
Improved satellite observations and their more effective use in numerical models are essential because the satellite uniquely provides the global perspective required for the Earth Information System. Atmospheric weather and climate data are an important part of the overall characterization and understanding of the Earth system. Observations from other parts of the Earth system, including the oceans, freshwater, land surfaces, ice, biosphere, and space environment, are also growing in importance NRC, Earth system in order to support the scientific understanding of this complex planet and to make useful predictions of its components for the benefit of life on the planet.
The vision is an Earth Information System EIS —a four-dimensional three spatial dimensions and time—past, present, and future gridded set of quantitative, geo-referenced digital data that describe the Earth system. The EIS would be widely distributed and evolutionary, much like the experience in the early days of the Internet and the World Wide Web. The EIS prototype that exists today will be continuously updated in the future with new observations and analyses and will include the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere.
As the EIS is updated, it will become ever more valuable and will support a larger and broader range of users. As Colgan and Weiher , p. One of the keys to providing better and more useful weather and climate information and forecasts is to advance the capability for observing the atmosphere, oceans, freshwater, ice, and land surfaces.
Satellites, with their unique global view, will play a crucial though not exclusive role in realizing these advances. An international system of polar-orbiting and geostationary satellites is expected to lead to dramatic improvements in weather and climate analysis and forecasting. New infrared remote atmospheric sounding systems, cloud-penetrating microwave radiometers, GPS radio occultation measurements, active spaceborne radar and light detection and ranging lidar , as well as in situ and remote sensing observations from the ground, balloons, and aircraft, will create a sensor web around the globe for future Earth observations.
For this vision of the Earth Information System to become a reality and maximize the return on the satellite research investment, a much more efficient means of transitioning from satellite research experiments to operational systems is required.
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