The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement, was an armed and violent xenophobic, anti-Christian, and anti-imperialist insurrection in China between and , towards the end of the Qing dynasty.. It was initiated by the Militia United in Righteousness (Yihequan), known in English as the Boxers because many of their members had practiced Chinese martial arts, also referred. The beginning of the Boxer Rebellion can be traced to the killing of two priests by two Boxer members visiting a German missionary in Juye County, China. In response, Kaiser Wilhelm II, the German leader at the time, dispatched German troops to the scene of .
The Boxer RebellionBoxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movementwas an armed and violent, anti-Christianand anti-imperialist insurrection in China between andtowards the end of the Qing dynasty.
Villagers in North China had been building resentment against Tje missionaries and the growth of foreign spheres of influence after the Sino-Japanese War of In a severe drought, violence and rebeplion spread across Shandong and the North China Plaintargetting foreign property, Christian missionaries, and Chinese Christians.
In JuneBoxer fighters, convinced they were invulnerable to foreign weapons, converged on Beijing with the slogan "Support the Qing government and exterminate the foreigners. Diplomats, foreign civilians, and soldiers as well as Chinese Christians in the Legation Quarter were besieged for 55 days by the Imperial Army of China and the Boxers.
Chinese officialdom was split between those supporting the Boxers and those favoring conciliation, led by Prince Qing. The supreme commander of the Chinese forces, the Manchu General Ronglu Junglulater claimed he acted to protect the foreigners. Officials in the Mutual Protection of Southeast China ignored the imperial order to fight against foreigners. The Eight-Nation Alliance, after being initially turned back, brought 20, armed troops to China, defeated the Imperial Army, and arrived in Beijing on 14 August, relieving the siege of the Legations.
Uncontrolled plunder of the capital and the surrounding countryside ensued, along with summary execution of those suspected of being Boxers. The Righteous and Harmonious Fists Yihequan arose in the inland boxeg of the northern coastal province of Shandonglong known for social unrest, religious sects, and martial societies. American Christian missionaries were probably the first to refer to the well-trained, athletic young men as "Boxers", because of the martial arts and weapons wnat they practiced.
Their primary practice was a type of spiritual resonse which involved the whirling of swords, violent prostrations, and chanting incantations to deities. The opportunities to fight back Western encroachment and colonization were especially attractive to unemployed village men, many of whom were teenagers.
Furthermore, the Boxer groups popularly claimed that millions of soldiers would descend out of Heaven to assist them in purifying China of foreign oppression. Inrebelljon ambivalence toward their heterodox practices, Yuxiana Manchu who was then prefect of Caozhou and would later become provincial governor, cooperated with the Dhat Swords Societywhose original purpose was protection against banditry, to fight bandits.
The Big Swords responded by attacking Catholic properties and burning them. More martial secret societies started emerging after this. The early years saw a variety of village activities, not a broad movement with a united purpose.
Martial folk religious societies such as the Baguadao Eight Trigrams prepared the way for the Boxers. Like the Red Boxing school or the Plum Flower Boxersthe Boxers of Shandong were more concerned with traditional social and moral values, such as filial piety, than with foreign influences. One leader, Zhu Hongdeng Red Lantern Zhustarted as tl wandering healer, specializing in skin ulcers, and gained wide respect by refusing payment for his treatments.
The enemy was foreign influence. They decided the "primary devils" were the Christian missionaries, and the "secondary devils" were the Chinese converts to Christianity. Both had to recant or be driven out or killed. The combination of extreme weather conditions, Western attempts at colonizing China, and growing anti-imperialist sentiment fueled the movement. First, a drought followed by floods reebellion Shandong province in — forced farmers to flee to cities and seek food.
Ro one observer said, "I am waht that a few days' heavy rainfall to terminate the long-continued drought A major cause of discontent in north China was missionary activity. The Treaty of Tientsin wha Tianjin and the Convention of Pekingsigned in after the Second Opium Warhad granted foreign rebeplion the freedom to preach boxrr in China and to buy boxrr on which to build churches.
This attack is respoonse as the Juye Incident. France gained influence of Yunnanmost of Guangxi and Guangdong provinces,  Japan over Fujian province. The Russian government militarily occupied their zone, imposed their law and schools, seized mining and logging privileges, settled their citizens, and even established their municipal administration on several cities,  the latter without Chinese consent.
In Octobera group of Boxers attacked the Christian community of Liyuantun village where a temple to the Jade Emperor had been converted into a Catholic church. Disputes had surrounded the church sincewhen the temple had been granted to the Christian residents of the village.
Aggression toward missionaries and Christians drew the ire of foreign mainly European governments. After the German government took over Shandong, many Chinese feared that the foreign missionaries and possibly all Christian activities were imperialist attempts at "carving the melon", i. The early growth of the Boxer movement coincided with the Hundred Days' Reform 11 June — 21 Septemberin which progressive Chinese officials, with support from Protestant missionaries, persuaded the Guangxu Emperor to institute sweeping reforms.
This alienated many conservative officials, whose opposition led Empress Dowager Cixi to intervene and reverse the reforms.
The failure of the reform movement disillusioned many educated Chinese and thus further weakened the Qing government. The empress seized power and placed the reformist emperor under house arrest. The national crisis was widely considered as caused by foreign aggression. France, Japan, Russia and Germany carved out spheres of influence, rebellioh that by it appeared that China would rseponse dismembered, with foreign powers each ruling a part of the country.
Thus, bythe Qing dynasty, which had ruled China for more than two centuries, was crumbling how to find a good orthopedic surgeon Chinese culture was under assault by powerful and unfamiliar religions and secular cultures.
In Januarywith a majority of conservatives in the imperial court, Empress Dowager Cixi changed her position on the Boxers, and issued edicts in their defence, causing protests from foreign powers. In springthe Boxer movement spread rapidly north from Shandong into the countryside near Beijing. Boxers burned Christian churches, killed Chinese Christians and intimidated Chinese officials who stood in their way. American Minister Edwin How to design a bookshelf. Conger cabled Washington, "the whole country is swarming with hungry, discontented, hopeless idlers.
The Chinese government reluctantly acquiesced, and the next day a multinational force of navy das from eight countries debarked from warships reblelion travelled by train from Dagu Taku to Beijing.
They set up defensive perimeters around their respective missions. On 5 Junethe railway line to Tianjin was cut by Boxers in the countryside and Beijing was isolated.
On 11 June, at Yongding gatethe secretary of the Japanese legation, Sugiyama Akira, was attacked and killed by the soldiers of general Dong Fuxiangwho were guarding the southern part of the Beijing walled city.
The Caliph agreed to the Kaiser's request and sent Enver Pasha not to be confused with the future Young Bxer leader to China inbut the rebellion was over by that time.
Also on 11 June, the first Boxer, dressed in his finery, was seen in waw Legation Quarter. The soldiers at the British Embassy and German Legations shot and killed several Boxers,  alienating the Chinese population of the city and nudging wss Qing government rezponse support of the Boxers. The Muslim Gansu braves and Boxers, along with tebellion Chinese then attacked and killed Chinese Christians around the legations in revenge for foreign attacks on Chinese.
As the situation grew more respnose, a second multinational force of 2, sailors and marines under the command of the British vice-admiral Edward Seymourthe largest contingent being British, was dispatched from Dagu to Beijing on 10 June The troops were transported by train from Dagu to Tianjin with the agreement of the Chinese government, but the railway between Tianjin and Beijing had been severed.
Seymour resolved to move forward and repair the railway, or progress on foot if necessary, keeping in mind that the distance between Tianjin and Beijing was only km.
When Seymour left Tianjin and started toward Beijing, it angered the imperial court. Prince Duan was a member of noxer imperial Aisin Gioro clan foreigners called him a "Blood How to self tan your legsand Empress Dowager Cixi had named her boxef as next in line for the imperial throne. He became the effective leader of the Boxers, and was extremely anti-foreigner. He soon ordered the Qing imperial army to attack the foreign forces.
After leaving Tianjin, the convoy quickly reached Langfang, whaf found the railway there to be destroyed. Seymour's engineers tried to repair the line, but the allied army found itself surrounded, as the railway both behind and in front of them had been destroyed.
They were attacked from all parts by Chinese irregulars and Chinese governmental troops. Five thousand of Dong Fuxiang's " Gansu Braves rebel,ion and an unknown number responsd "Boxers" won a costly but major victory over Seymour's troops at the Battle of Langfang on 18 June. It was reported that the Chinese artillery was superior to the European artillery, since the Europeans did not bother to bring along much for the campaign, thinking they could easily sweep through Chinese resistance.
The Obxer could not locate the Chinese artillery, which was raining shells upon their positions. The Chinese also employed pincer movements, ambushes and sniper tactics with some success against the foreigners. News arrived on 18 June regarding attacks on foreign legations.
Seymour decided to continue advancing, this time along the Beihe river, toward Tongzhou25 kilometres 16 mi from Beijing. By the 19th, they had to abandon their efforts due to progressively stiffening resistance and started to retreat southward along the river with over wounded.
Commandeering four civilian Chinese junks along how to find a puppy online river, they loaded all their wounded and remaining supplies onto them and pulled them along with boxxer from the riverbanks.
By this point they were very low on food, ammunition and medical supplies. Unexpectedly they then happened upon the Great Xigu Arsenala hidden Qing munitions cache of which the Allied Powers had had no knowledge until then.
They immediately captured and occupied it, discovering not only Krupp field guns, but rifles with millions of rounds of ammunition, along with millions of pounds of rice and ample medical hhe. There they dug in and awaited rescue. A Chinese servant was able to infiltrate the Boxer and Qing lines, informing the Eight Powers of the Seymour troops' predicament. Surrounded and attacked nearly around the clock by Qing troops and Boxers, they were at the point of being overrun.
On 25 June, a regiment composed of 1, men Russian troops from Port ArthurBritish seamen, with an ad hoc mix of other assorted Alliance troops finally arrived on what was the boxer rebellion a response to from Tientsin rebellioon rescue Seymour.
Seymour's casualties during the expedition were 62 killed and wounded. Meanwhile, in Beijing, on 16 June, Empress Dowager Cixi summoned the imperial court for a wwas audience and addressed the choice z using the Boxers to evict the foreigners from the city and seeking a diplomatic solution.
In response to a high official who doubted the efficacy of the Boxers, Cixi replied that both sides of the debate at the imperial court realised that popular support for the Boxers in the countryside was almost universal and that suppression would be both difficult and unpopular, especially when too troops were on the march. Two factions were active during this debate. On one side were anti-foreigners who viewed foreigners as invasive and imperialistic and evoked a nativist populism.
They advocated taking advantage of the Boxers to achieve the expulsion of foreign troops and foreign influences. The pro-foreigners on the other hand advanced rapprochement with foreign governments, seeing the Boxers as superstitious and ignorant.
The event that tilted the Qing imperial tbe irrevocably toward support of the Boxers and war with the foreign powers was the attack of foreign navies on the Dagu Forts near Tianjin, on 17 June On 17 June they took the Dagu Forts commanding the approaches to Tianjin, and from what is a mine map brought increasing numbers of troops on shore.
When Cixi received an ultimatum [ when? If we just fold our arms and yield to them, I would have no face to see our ancestors after death. If we must perish, why don't we fight waw the death?
Cixi stated that "I have always been of the opinion, that the allied armies had been permitted to escape too easily in Only a united effort was then necessary to have given China the victory. Today, at last, the opportunity for revenge has come", and said that millions of Chinese would join the cause of fighting whaat foreigners since responsd Manchus rebdllion provided "great benefits" on China.
The next morning, diplomats from the besieged legations met to discuss the Empress's offer.
Jun 17, · In response to widespread foreign encroachment upon China’s national affairs, Chinese nationalists launch the so-called Boxer Rebellion in Peking. Calling themselves I Ho Ch’uan, or “the. The total number of marines sent to China during the Boxer Rebellion was 49 officers and 1, enlisted men Service records for enlisted marines who served in the Boxer Rebellion are held in either the Old Military and Civil Records unit at the National Archives Building in Washington, D.C., or at the National Personnel Records Center. The Boxer Rebellion, The Boxer Rebellion was an anti-foreign/Christian movement by the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists in China. In response to imperialist expansion and missionary evangelism, local organizations began to emerge in Shandong in
View in National Archives Catalog. In a crisis erupted in China as the "Boxers" increased their resistance to foreign influence and presence. By the end of the nineteenth century, several countries had already established spheres of influence in China.
In the fall of , Secretary of State John Hay wrote that the United States, a late arrival, wanted to maintain an "open door policy" in China. If the Boxers succeeded in pushing the United States and other foreign countries out, this newly opened door could soon be shut.
Discontent with foreigners had been on the rise in China since , when the "I Ho Ch'uan" Society of "Righteous and Harmonious Fists" began gaining popularity in a province in northwest China. This group commonly referred to as "Boxers" opposed foreign influence and was strongly anti-Christian. The group's numbers swelled with farmers and other workers who were affected by droughts that had come on the heels of devastating floods. Boxers began harassing Chinese Christians and foreign missionaries.
As Boxer activity spread to several provinces, provincial leaders and the Chinese imperial court were inconsistent in their stances. Authorities sometimes fought to protect foreigners and Christians and at other times chose to do nothing at all. Tzu Hsi, the empress dowager of the Manchu Dynasty, was publicly "anti-Boxer. These eight foreign powers also maintained legations in the Legation Quarter of Peking. The population of Peking started to grow as hundreds of foreign missionaries and Chinese Christians began flocking to the city for protection.
On May 28 and 29, Boxers burned several railroad stations between Peking and Paotingfu, including the large railroad junction at Fengtai. The legations in Peking, fearing they were being isolated, quickly telegraphed for help. The immediate response was the deployment of sailors and marines from foreign ships off China. On May 31, Capt. John T. Navy Assistant Surgeon T. Lippett from the USS Newark. On June 18, foreign ministers in Peking received word from the Chinese government that a state of war would soon be in effect.
The declaration came in response to the capture of the Chinese forts at Taku by the foreign powers the day before. The foreign ministers were given twenty-four hours to leave Peking with the promise of safe passage as far south as Tientsin. The ministers met the next day and declined the offer to leave.
The empress dowager issued a declaration of war that included praise for "the brave followers of the Boxers. Chinese artillery and small arms fire became constant.
There were no organized attacks against the legations. On the twenty- fifth, marines took a critical position on the Tartar Wall. Since the beginning of the siege, Chinese forces had constructed barricades some distance from the front of the marines.
On the night of June 28, Pvt. Richard Quinn reconnoitered one of these barricades by crawling on his hands and knees to the Chinese position. Starting around two o'clock the next morning, Captain Myers led U. Marines and British and Russian troops in a charge on the Chinese barricade. The attack, carried out during a rainstorm, was successful; the Chinese fell back to another barricade hundreds of yards to the rear.
Two marine privates were killed, and Myers was wounded in the leg. Sniper and artillery fire died down to a minimum after an informal truce was made on the sixteenth. This activity continued until the foreign legations were relieved on August Marines participated in several actions in China after Myers's force reached Peking. Before the siege began, an allied force moved north from Tientsin toward Peking days after a railroad line was torn up, isolating the capital city.
Navy Capt. Bowman McCalla second in command. Seymour's expedition included American sailors and marines. The allied force traveled north, rebuilding the railroad line as they went.
Seymour's expedition came within twenty-five miles of Peking but was forced by Boxers and Chinese soldiers to retreat back toward Tientsin. After five days of retreating south, Seymour's force fought its way into a Chinese arsenal six miles north of Tientsin, where they fortified their position and waited for help.
The United States quickly scrambled to send additional troops to help lift the siege of Peking. Two separate detachments of marines left Cavite in the Philippine Islands and joined up near Taku, China. Littleton W. On the twentieth, this marine battalion and approximately four hundred Russians engaged the Chinese near Tientsin.
The marines were the spearhead of the American-Russian attack but had little success against the more substantial Chinese forces.
After an overwhelming counterattack, the Americans and Russians retreated. The marines formed the rear guard of the retreat, in which they were pursued for four hours. Ending up where they started, the marines had marched a total of thirty miles after going to Tientsin and back.
They suffered three killed and seven wounded. This enlarged force went on the offensive the next day and took all but the inner walled city of Tientsin. On the twenty-fifth, the international force relieved Seymour's expedition, which had been held up for a month at the Hsi-Ku Arsenal north of Tientsin.
The Ninth U. Infantry arrived on July 6 and joined the allied forces near Tientsin. The number of marines in China increased when Col. Robert L. The next day, the allied force launched an attack against Tientsin to rid the walled inner city of the remaining Chinese and Boxer forces. The attacking force, under the command of a British general, included the marines, the Ninth U. Fighting took place most of the day with little to show for it. Of the marines engaged in this action, seventeen enlisted men and four officers became casualties.
This breakthrough triggered widespread looting of the city. On July 30, U. Army Gen. Adna R. Chaffee arrived in Tientsin and took command of all U. Infantry, the Sixth U. Cavalry, and one battery from the Fifth U. The expedition's main goal was to relieve the legations in Peking and protect American interests in China. On August 4, the international expedition of approximately 18, left Tientsin for Peking; Chaffee's force of approximately 2, Americans included marines.
The next day, part of the international force, including the marines, fought successfully at Yangstun. Many members of the international force suffered from heat exhaustion during the eighty-mile march as a result of the high temperatures and occasional fighting from Tientsin to Peking.
On the fourteenth, the international force reached Peking and relieved the legations. Upon reaching Peking, the marine unit stopped near the north gate while a platoon went to the top of the wall to stop sniper fire and set up protection for the artillery.
Two privates and Lt. Smedley Butler were wounded. Most of this activity was combated by German troops until the Boxer Protocol a formal peace treaty was signed in September By the time the siege was lifted, the Legation Guard had suffered eighteen casualties. Seven enlisted men were killed, and eleven members of the Legation Guard were wounded, including Captain Myers and Assistant Surgeon Lippitt. The enlisted men of the Legation Guard returned to the ships on which they had served before being detached for service in China.
Additional marines had arrived in China in mid-August but did not participate in relieving Peking. At the end of September, the remaining marines in China were ordered back to the Philippines and shipped out on the Brooklyn, Zafiro, and Indiana.
Shortly after Peking was relieved, U. Minister to China E. Conger wrote the secretary of state, "To our Marines fell the most difficult and dangerous portion of the defense by reason of our proximity to the great city wall, and the main city gates over which the large guns were planted. Our legation, with the position which we held on the wall, was the key to the whole situation. At a meeting held August 18, a group of American missionaries resolved that, "The Americans who have been besieged in Peking desire to express their hearty appreciation of the courage, fidelity, and patriotism of the American Marines, to whom we so largely owe our salvation.
Individual honors were bestowed on many marines in the wake of the Boxer Rebellion. Thirty-three enlisted men were awarded the Medal of Honor, including the first medal awarded to a marine posthumously. Harry Fisher was killed on July 16 while helping erect a barricade near the wall in Peking. Dan Daly received his first Medal of Honor for volunteering to stay alone on the bastion of the wall while undergoing constant fire from the enemy on the night of July Instead, officers noted for bravery in action were usually distinguished by being "advanced in numbers" in their rank or sometimes awarded brevet rank.
For example, Capt. John Myers was advanced four numbers and brevetted a major; 1st Lt. Smedley Butler was advanced two numbers and brevetted a captain; and 1st Lt.
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