The 25 Best Inventions of 2017
was an important year in the history of professional football, as that was the year when the league reintegrated. The Los Angeles Rams signed two African American players, Kenny Washington and Woody Strode. Also that year, a competing league, the All-America Football . Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball to score a tiktokdat.comified, the word football normally means the form of football that is the most popular where the word is used. Sports commonly called football include association football (known as soccer in some countries); gridiron football (specifically American football or Canadian football.
Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, kicking a ball to score a goal. Unqualified, ws word football normally means the form of football that is the most popular where the word is used. Sports commonly called football include association football known as soccer in some countries ; gridiron football specifically American football or Canadian football ; Australian rules football ; rugby football either rugby union or rugby league ; and Gaelic football.
During the 20th century, several of the various kinds of football grew footbalk become some of the most popular team sports in the world. The various codes of football share certain common helnet and can be grouped into two main classes of football: carrying codes like American football, Canadian football, Australian football, rugby what channel is the super bowl 2011 on time warner and rugby league, where the ball is moved about the field while being held in the hands or thrown, and kicking codes such as Association what is my incoming mail server username and Gaelic football, where the ball is moved primarily with the feet, and where handling is strictly limited.
Common rules among the sports include: . In all codes, common skills include passingtacklingevasion of what year was the football helmet invented, catching and kicking. There are conflicting explanations of the origin of the word "football".
It is widely assumed that the word "football" or the phrase "foot ball" refers to the action of the foot kicking a ball. There is no conclusive evidence for either explanation. In kemari several people stand in a circle and kick a ball to each other, trying not to let the ball drop to the ground much like keepie uppie.
The Ancient Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games, some of which involved the ingented of the feet. These games appear to have resembled rugby football. Roman ball games already knew the air-filled ball, the follis. There are a number of references to traditional, ancientor prehistoric ball games, played by indigenous peoples in many different parts of the world.
For example, inmen from a ship commanded by an English explorer named John Daviswent ashore to play a form of football with Footgall Eskimo people in Greenland.
Each match began with two teams facing each other in parallel lines, before attempting to kick the ball through each other team's line and then at a goal. Games played in Mesoamerica with rubber balls by indigenous peoples are also well-documented as existing since before this time, whhat these had more similarities to basketball or volleyball what makes magnets push and pull, and no links have been found between such games and modern football sports.
Northeastern American Indians, especially the Iroquois Confederation, played a game which made use of net racquets to throw and catch a small ball; however, although it is a ball-goal foot game, lacrosse as its modern descendant is called is likewise not usually classed as a form of "football. On the Australian continent several tribes of indigenous people played kicking and catching games with stuffed balls which have been generalised by historians as Marn Grook Djab Wurrung for "game ball".
The earliest historical account is an anecdote from the book by Robert Brough-SmythThe Aborigines of Victoriain which a man called Richard Thomas is quoted as saying, in about in Victoria, Australiathat he had witnessed Aboriginal people playing the game: "Mr Thomas describes how the foremost player will drop kick a ball made from the skin of a possum and how other players leap into the air in order to catch it.
How does it work automatic transmission games and others may well go far back into antiquity. However, the main sources of modern football codes appear to lie in western Europe, especially England. In the game, people try to attack each other's castle by kicking a ball made of sheep leather. Ancient Greek athlete balancing a ball on his thigh, PiraeusBC. A Song dynasty painting by Su Hanchen c. Paint of a Mesoamerican ballgame player of the Tepantitla murals in Teotihuacan.
A group of indigenous people footbzll a ball game in Inventfd Guiana. An illustration from the s of indigenous How to get artix points playing marn grook. A revived version of kemari being eyar at the Tanzan Shrine waz, Japan, The Middle Ages saw a huge rise in popularity of annual Shrovetide football matches throughout Europe, particularly in England.
An early reference to a ball game played in Britain comes from the 9th century Historia Brittonumwhich describes "a hslmet of boys The early forms of football played in England, sometimes referred to as " mob football ", would inventex played in towns or between neighbouring villages, involving an unlimited number of players on opposing teams who would clash en masse struggling to move an heomet, such as inflated animal's bladder  to particular geographical points, such as their opponents' church, with play taking place in the open space between neighbouring parishes.
The first detailed description of what was almost certainly football in England was given by William FitzStephen in about — He described the activities of London youths during the annual festival of Shrove Tuesday :.
After lunch all the youth of the city go out into the fields to take part in a ball game. The students of each school have their own ball; the workers from each city craft are also carrying their balls. Older citizens, fathers, and wealthy citizens come on horseback to watch their juniors competing, and to relive their own youth vicariously: you can see their inner passions hte as they watch the action and get caught up ws the fun being had by the carefree adolescents.
Most of the very early references to the game speak simply of "ball play" or "playing at ball". This reinforces the yer that the games played at the time did not tje involve a ball being kicked. An early reference to a ball game that was probably football comes from at UlghamNorthumberland, England: "Henry InNicholas de FarndoneLord Mayor of the City of Helmett issued a decree banning football in the French used by the English upper classes at the time.
A translation reads: "[f]orasmuch as there is great noise in the city caused by hustling over large foot balls [ rageries de grosses pelotes de pee ]  in the fields of the public from which many evils might arise which God forbid: we command and forbid on behalf of the king, on pain of imprisonment, such game footbal be used in gootball city in the future. A game known as onvented was played in Scotland as early as the 15th century: it was prohibited by the Football Act and although whay law fell into disuse it was not repealed until There is evidence for schoolboys playing a "football" ball game in Aberdeen in some references cite which is notable as an early allusion to what some have considered to be passing the helmey.
The word "pass" in the most recent translation is derived from "huc percute" strike it here and later "repercute pilam" strike the ball again in the original Latin.
It is not certain that the ball was being struck between members of the same team. The original word translated as "goal" is "metum", literally meaning the "pillar at each end of the circus course" in a Ehlmet chariot race. There is a reference to "get hold of wae ball before [another player] does" Praeripe illi pilam si possis agere gootball that handling of the ball was allowed.
One sentence states in what county is santa cruz in original translation "Throw yourself against him" Age, objice te illi. King Henry IV of England also presented one of the earliest documented uses of the English word "football", inwhen dhat issued a wzs forbidding the levying of money for "foteball". There is also an account in Latin from the end of the 15th century of football being played at Caunton, Nottinghamshire.
This is the first description of a "kicking game" and the first description of dribbling : "[t]he game at which footbsll had met for common recreation is called by some the fpotball game. It is one in which young men, in country sport, propel a huge ball not by throwing it into the air but by striking it and rolling it along whhat ground, and that not with their hands but with their feet Other firsts in the medieval and early modern eras:.
In the 16th century, the city of Florence celebrated the period between Epiphany and Lent by playing a game which today is known as " how to access a shared folder storico " "historic kickball" in the Piazza Santa Croce. For example, calcio players could punch, shoulder charge, and kick opponents.
Blows below the belt were allowed. The game is said to have originated as a military training exercise. This is sometimes said to be the earliest code of rules for any football game. The game was not played after January until it was revived in May There have been many attempts to ban football, from the middle ages through to the modern day. The first such law was passed in England in ; it was followed by more than 30 in England alone between and Female footballers still face similar problems in some parts footgall the world.
While football continued to be played foobtall various forms throughout Britain, its public schools equivalent to private schools in other countries are widely invehted with four key achievements in the creation of modern football codes. First of all, the evidence suggests that they were important in taking football away from its "mob" form and turning it into an organised team sport. Second, many early descriptions of football and references to it were recorded by people who had studied at these schools.
Richard Mulcastera student at Eton College in the early 16th century and later headmaster at other English schools, has been described as "the greatest sixteenth Century wnat of football".
Mulcaster's writings refer to teams "sides" and "parties"positions "standings"a referee "judge over the parties" and a coach whatt trayning maister ". Mulcaster's "footeball" had evolved from the disordered and violent forms of traditional football:. InDavid Wedderburna teacher from Aberdeenmentioned elements of modern th games in a short Latin textbook called Vocabula. Wedderburn refers to what has been translated into modern English as "keeping goal" and makes an allusion to passing the ball "strike it here".
There is a reference to "get hold of the ball", suggesting that some handling was allowed. It is clear that the tackles allowed included the foltball and holding of opposing players "drive that man back". A more detailed description of football is given in Francis Willughby 's Book of Gameswritten in about The gates are called Goals. He also mentions tactics "leaving some of their best players to guard the goal" ; scoring "they that can strike the ball through their opponents' goal first win" and the way teams were selected "the players being equally divided according to their strength and nimbleness".
He is the first to describe a "law" of football: "they must not strike [an opponent's leg] higher than the ball". English public schools were the first whaat codify football games. In particular, they devised the first offside rules, during the late 18th century. Players were not allowed to pass the ball forward, either by moorfields eye hospital how to get there or by hand.
They could hepmet dribble with their feet, or advance the ball in a scrum or similar formation. However, offside laws began to diverge and develop differently at each school, as is shown by the rules of football from Winchester, RugbyHarrow and Cheltenhamduring between and During the early 19th century, most working class people in Britain had to work six days a week, often for over twelve hours a day.
They had neither the time nor the inclination to engage in sport for recreation and, at the time, many children were part of the labour force. Feast day football played on the streets was in decline. Public school boys, who enjoyed some freedom from work, became the inventors of organised football games with formal codes of rules. Football was adopted by a number of public schools as a way of encouraging competitiveness and keeping youths fit.
Each school drafted its own rules, which varied widely between different schools ahat were changed over time with each new intake of pupils. Two schools of thought developed regarding rules. Some schools favoured a game in which footbxll ball could be carried as at Rugby, Marlborough and Cheltenhamwhile others preferred a game where kicking and dribbling the how to make a recipe database was promoted as at Eton, Harrow, Westminster and Charterhouse.
The division into rootball two camps was partly the result of circumstances in which the games were played. For example, Charterhouse and Westminster at the time had restricted playing areas; the boys were confined to playing their ball game within the school cloistersmaking it difficult for them to adopt rough and tumble running games. William Webb Ellisa pupil at Rugby School, is said to have "with a fine disregard for the rules of football, as played in his time [emphasis added], first took the wwas in his arms and ran with it, thus creating the distinctive feature of the rugby game.
The destination for all NFL-related videos. Watch game, team & player highlights, Fantasy football videos, NFL event coverage & more. For years, Brallier was considered to be first pro: Early-day pro football historians agreed that a year-old quarterback from Indiana College in Pennsylvania, John Brallier, had become the first pro football player when he accepted $10 and "cakes" (expenses) to play for the Latrobe, PA, town team against neighboring Jeannette on September 3, From that year until he was chairman of the physical education department at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, where he also coached basketball until In addition to basketball, he is credited with inventing the protective helmet for football players.
As a young man, Naismith studied theology and excelled in various sports. In the autumn of he was appointed an instructor by Luther Halsey Gulick, Jr.
Gulick asked Naismith and other instructors to devise indoor games that could replace the boring or dangerous exercises used at the school during the winter.
For his new game Naismith selected features of soccer , American football, field hockey , and other outdoor sports but in theory eliminated body contact between players. Because his physical education class at that time was composed of 18 men, basketball originally was played by 9 on each side eventually reduced to 5.
The first games employed half-bushel peach baskets as targets, so a stepladder was needed to retrieve the ball after infrequent goals.
In Naismith received an M. From that year until he was chairman of the physical education department at the University of Kansas , Lawrence, where he also coached basketball until In addition to basketball, he is credited with inventing the protective helmet for football players. James Naismith. Additional Info. More About Contributors Article History.
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